PORTLAND, USA, May 23 (IPS) – Illegal immigration in the 21st century poses a serious dilemma. Governments in almost every region of the globe appear to be confused about how to address the two central aspects of the dilemma.
The first dimension concerns the wave of illegal migration that continues to arrive daily at international borders. The second dimension of the dilemma focuses on the presence of millions of men, women and children illegally residing in countries (Table 1).
Different aspects of international migration with a focus on the 2018 Global Compact on Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration were discussed at the first United Nations International Migration Review. Forum convened May 17-20. The main outcome of the Forum was unanimity among governments Progress Statementincluding calling on governments to strengthen efforts for safe and orderly migration, cracking down on smuggling and human trafficking, and ensuring that migrants are respected and have access to health care and other services. However, 13 pages manifesto failed to provide clear guidelines or actionable actions to effectively address the illegal immigration dilemma.
The three fundamental aspects of the illegal immigration dilemma relate to demographics, human rights, and profits.
First demographic It is clear that the supply of migrants in large part from developing countries far exceeds the demand for migrants in developed countries. As a result of that demographic imbalance and despite the costs and risks, millions of men, women and children are turning to illegal migration to take up residence in another country, which usually rich developed countries.
While more than one Billion people want to move permanently to another country, the current annual number of immigrants is several million only a small fraction of those who want to immigrate. In addition, the total number of immigrants worldwide is also relatively small, about 281 million won by 2020, an estimated one-quarter of them, or about 70 million, are illegal migrants (Figure 1).
In addition, the number of people attempting to migrate illegally is reaching a record high. In the United States, for example, the number of arrests, i.e. apprehended or apprehended, at the US-Mexico border in April reached its highest level on record. 234.088.
The number of illegal migrants crossing the Mediterranean Sea to the European Union and the English Channel to the UK is increasing again. During the first two months of 2022, illegal border crossings at the EU’s external borders increased 61 percent from a year ago, or close to 27,000. The UK government also reports that the number of illegal migrants arriving by small boats could be as high as 1,000 yen a day.
The second fundamental aspect of the illegal migration dilemma concerns the asymmetry of human rights related to international migration. Article 13 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights clearly states that everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and return to his homeland. However, human rights do not exist for a person to enter another country without the permission of that country (Table 2).
Outside, Article 14 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides individuals with the right to seek asylum and to enjoy asylum in other countries from persecution. However, in order to be granted asylum, a person is often unable or unwilling to return to their country of origin due to grounds for fear being persecuted because of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion.
Poverty, unemployment, domestic problems, climate change and poor governance are generally not considered legitimate grounds for granting asylum. Unfortunately, many request asylum Advanced is not genuine, but only for the first purpose of entering and then staying in the destination country.
Most asylum claims are denied but it takes a considerable amount of time, often several years, to reach a final decision on an individual’s claim. Such a long period of time allows claimants to become settled, work and integrate into the local community.
In addition to logistics, governments face economic consequences and public opposition from various regions to the repatriation of illegal migrants to low-income countries. high levels of poverty, corruption and social unrest. Therefore, unless illegal migrants commit serious crimes, they are usually not caught and deported.
One notable recent exception, however, is the UK, which is seeking to bring illegal migrants to Rwanda. Recent British Government announced that people making dangerous, unnecessary and illegal journeys to the UK can be transferred to Rwanda to review their asylum claims and rebuild their lives there.
The third fundamental aspect of the illegal migration dilemma concerns profits. Charged high for their services, smugglers amass huge profits by promoting, facilitating and encouraging the illegal migration of men, women and children across international borders. .
Once illegal migrants are settled in their desired destination, many businesses and businesses profit from their labor. Given their precarious situation, illegal migrants are not only willing to work for less than usual wages but are also reluctant to report abuses in the workplace that could lead to their being fired. discharge, arrest and repatriation.
Faced with a steady stream of illegal migrants, many countries are building walls, fences and barriers, beefing up border guards, taking more countermeasures, returning and deporting, at the same time establish more detention centers. However, based on recent levels and trends of illegal migration, these and related steps have not achieved the desired goal.
Similarly, faced with the presence of large numbers of illegal migrants residing within their borders, governments are struggling with how best to address this troubling aspect of the dilemma. the illegal migration dilemma. Governments are not inclined to grant amnesty or citizenship to illegal migrants, nor are they prepared to deport illegal migrants residing within their borders. As a result, the current situation in most countries remains unresolved for most illegal migrants, who remain in a precarious situation.
All in all, it seems unlikely that governments will resolve the illegal immigration dilemma any time soon. In fact, the dilemma can be exacerbated by increasing illegal immigration due to the increasing population, worsening living conditions and the influence of climate change in the sending countries.
Joseph Chamie is a consulting demographer, former director of the United Nations Population Division and author of numerous publications on population issues, including his book, “Birth, Death, Migration and Other Important Population Issues. “
© Inter Press Service (2022) – All rights reservedOrigin: Inter Press Service