Health

Author Claims Lie Detectors Aren’t Truth: Polygraphs Are More Than ‘Junk Science’


For more than a decade, viewers of The Jeremy Kyle Show have watched in hopes of seeing a familiar parade of chaotic people — and one infamous feature in particular.

For the show’s cheating partners and lousy dads, there’s no more serious prospect than a lie detector.

Usually, the test will reveal that the subject is a ‘liar!’ like a daytime presenter who likes to scream. Sometimes they are ‘scum’.

However, as a Channel 4 documentary revealed last month, even in perfect conditions, with a highly trained professional administering them, the polygraph tests Jeremy Kyle’s accuracy is only 66 to 70% maximum.

They are not just a pantomime.

We shouldn’t be surprised, says author Amit Katwala in her new book, Run in the Blood. For all the enormous harm they can cause, polygraphs, or ‘multimeters’, are not and have never been reliable.

Polygraphs are said to work by tracking physiological changes in a person as they respond to questions.  These can include increased blood pressure, sweating on the palms, or shortness of breath, any of which could indicate a person is lying.

Polygraphs are said to work by tracking physiological changes in a person as they respond to questions.  These can include increased blood pressure, sweating on the palms, or shortness of breath, any of which could indicate a person is lying.

Polygraphs are said to work by tracking physiological changes in a person as they respond to questions. These can include increased blood pressure, sweating on the palms, or shortness of breath, any of which could indicate a person is lying.

'There is no way for the examiner to be certain whether the change in blood pressure is due to fear of arrest or anxiety about being falsely accused,' said author Amit Katwala, pictured above.

'There is no way for the examiner to be certain whether the change in blood pressure is due to fear of arrest or anxiety about being falsely accused,' said author Amit Katwala, pictured above.

‘There is no way for the examiner to be certain whether the change in blood pressure is due to fear of arrest or anxiety about being falsely accused,’ said author Amit Katwala, pictured above.

They are thought to work by monitoring physiological changes in a person as they respond to questions.

These may include increased blood pressure, sweating in the palms or rapid breathing, any of which could indicate a person is lying.

Author Amit Katwala says in her new book, Run in the Blood, that for all the enormous harm they can cause, polygraphs, or 'multimeters,' are not and was never reliable.

Author Amit Katwala says in her new book, Run in the Blood, that for all the enormous harm they can cause, polygraphs, or 'multimeters,' are not and was never reliable.

Author Amit Katwala says in her new book, Run in the Blood, that for all the enormous harm they can cause, polygraphs, or ‘multimeters,’ are not and was never reliable.

Subject’s breathing rate was measured through rubber tubes in the upper chest and abdomen. Stick on hand or finger measures sweat. A machine called a heart rate monitor monitors blood pressure and pulse.

However, this is more than just ‘junk science’:

“There is no way for the examiner to be sure whether the change in blood pressure is due to fear of arrest or anxiety about being falsely accused,” says Katwala. ‘No sign of deception can be true for everyone – no Pinocchio nose.’

Millions of multigraph tests are performed each year. In the United States, they are frequently used by police and other law enforcement agencies, although their findings are unacceptable in court.

In the UK, we use multiple graphs to assess whether sex offenders have breached parole conditions.

This is despite the fact that they have huge differences in test results depending on things like location, race, and gender.

Furthermore, there have long been ways to beat the machine, including ‘exaggerating the body’s response to control questions. [straightforward ones used to measure a person’s response when not under any pressure] For example, by biting your tongue or stepping on a pin hidden in your shoe. ‘

Subject's breathing rate was measured through rubber tubes in the upper chest and abdomen.  Stick on hand or finger measures sweat.  A machine called a heart rate monitor monitors blood pressure and pulse

Subject's breathing rate was measured through rubber tubes in the upper chest and abdomen.  Stick on hand or finger measures sweat.  A machine called a heart rate monitor monitors blood pressure and pulse

Subject’s breathing rate was measured through rubber tubes in the upper chest and abdomen. Stick on hand or finger measures sweat. A machine called a heart rate monitor monitors blood pressure and pulse

Yes, lie detectors have been used to get confessions from some of the worst criminals, but they also make serious mistakes of justice, says Katwala.

The idea that the actions of the body can betray the mind has been around for centuries.

Tremors in the Blood takes its title from a suggestion by author Daniel Defoe that the pulse of a pickpocket will make them disappear.

He wrote in 1730: “Sin always brings fear,” he wrote in 1730.

Even the main inventor of modern day lie detectors began to worry about what he had rolled out.

The polygraph was created by three men in Berkeley, California in the early 1920s: August Vollmer, John Larson, a young detective, and a teenager named Leonarde Keeler.

For more than a decade, viewers of The Jeremy Kyle Show (above) have watched in hopes of seeing a familiar parade of rioters - and a famous feature in particular

For more than a decade, viewers of The Jeremy Kyle Show (above) have watched in hopes of seeing a familiar parade of rioters - and a famous feature in particular

For more than a decade, viewers of The Jeremy Kyle Show (above) have watched in hopes of seeing a familiar parade of rioters – and a famous feature in particular

For the show's cheating partners and lousy dads, there's no more serious prospect than a lie detector

For the show's cheating partners and lousy dads, there's no more serious prospect than a lie detector

For the show’s cheating partners and lousy dads, there’s no more serious prospect than a lie detector

Vollmer, the town’s police chief, is often described as the father of modern politics for his efforts to continue to use scientific investigative methods.

He tasked Larson, who was then the only police officer in the US with a doctorate, to develop a lie detector based on the newly invented – but now standard method of systolic blood pressure testing. -.

Vollmer hoped such a device would put an end to the brutal police interrogation methods then widely used.

Keeler, the son of a poet and spiritualist, joined after he started hanging around at the Berkeley police station. At the time, he was known as an amateur magician, but he would also prove a talented inventor and play a leading role in developing and refining the device.

Larson’s pride in their lie detector almost instantly vanished when it helped acquit a man named Henry Wilkins, accused of orchestrating the 1922 murder of his wife.

The examination found Wilkens innocent, but all other evidence clearly pointed to his guilt. Larson considered the incident ‘a spectacular public failure of the polygraph.’

That same year, the machine was banned in most US courtrooms on the grounds that the technology was too new.

If Larson is relieved, his partner, has other ideas.

Keeler created an updated version of his own lie detector and continued to promote it in police circles.

The original intention was to remove violence from interrogations, however Keeler’s proposed methods for finding the truth combined his use of a lie detector with elements of fraud. old brutality – ‘third degree’.

He also found commercial stores. In 1931, Keeler signed an agreement with the insurance group Lloyds of London to offer banks a 10% discount on their insurance premiums if they allowed him to check on their staff regularly.

Larson was furious, saying that Keeler had ‘raised a monster of Frankenstein’ and their relationship turned toxic.

Katwala wrote: ‘Not only did Keeler take most of the credit for Larson’s invention, he also “prosted sex” until it was little more than “a racket”.

Soon, lie detectors will ‘reach almost every… aspect of the justice system, and beyond, into business and politics.’

Even Keeler wouldn’t be left horrified when he was treated by a man named Joseph Rappaport in 1937.

Rappaport was sentenced to death in the electric chair for the murder of a man for giving evidence against him for trafficking heroin.

As a last-ditch effort to save the convicted man, his attorney arranged for Keeler to perform a general search.

Katwala wrote: ‘The Rappaport test broke every rule that Keeler had set. ‘The room was not dark, empty and silent. Outside was a crowd of lawyers, witnesses and journalists.

The test, which should have taken several hours, was completed in less than an hour. And Keeler himself was both judge and jury, concluding: ‘On the basis of my findings, Rappaport is guilty’. He was executed that same night.

However, as Keeler later admitted: ‘The whole atmosphere was like a circus.’

“John Larson wanted to end the ‘third degree’, but he ended up creating a form of psychological torture and, as Katwala puts it, a ‘long, dark history of failure and violation of humanity’. permission”.

Larson has spent the rest of his life trying to stop the machine’s spread, but he’s battling an unstoppable tide.

Today, polygraphs are increasingly infiltrating British authorities, with plans to put convicted terrorists and domestic abusers to the test.

Dozens of new lie detection technologies have been invented in recent years, including ‘brain fingerprinting’ and techniques related to artificial intelligence.

But they serve no more than an illusion of justice.

Katwala writes: “It has been a hundred years since the first test of multiple graphs. “And there’s still no such thing as a lie detector.”

  • Tremors In The Blood by Amit Katwala, published by Mudlark, costs £20.



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